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Monday, 13 February 2017

Chapter 25 Exercise 17, Introduction to Java Programming, Tenth Edition Y. Daniel LiangY.

25.17 (Data compression: Huffman coding animation) Write a program that
enables the user to enter text and displays the Huffman coding tree based
on the text, as shown in Figure 25.25a. Display the weight of the subtree
inside the subtree’s root circle. Display each leaf node’s character. Display
the encoded bits for the text in a label. When the user clicks the Decode Text
button, a bit string is decoded into text displayed in the label, as shown in
Figure 25.25b.


import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;

import javax.swing.*;


public class Exercise17 extends JPanel {
 private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
 private Tree tree;
 private JTextField jtfText = new JTextField();
 private JTextField jtfBitString = new JTextField();
 private JButton jbtShow = new JButton("Show Huffman Tree");
 private JButton jbtDecode = new JButton("Decode Text");
 private TreeView view = new TreeView();
 private int[] counts;
 private String[] codes;
 
 public static void main(String[] args) {
  JFrame frame = new JFrame("Exercise17");
  JApplet applet = new DisplayTree();
  frame.add(applet);
  frame.setSize(900, 500);
  frame.setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE);
  frame.setLocationRelativeTo(null);
  frame.setVisible(true);
 }
 
 static class DisplayTree extends JApplet {
  private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
  public DisplayTree() {
   add(new Exercise17());
  }
 }

 public Exercise17() {
  setUI();
 }

 /** Initialize UI for binary tree */
 private void setUI() {
  this.setLayout(new BorderLayout(5, 5));
  add(view, BorderLayout.CENTER);
  JPanel panel1 = new JPanel(new BorderLayout(5, 5));
  panel1.add(new JLabel("  Enter a text: "), BorderLayout.WEST);
  panel1.add(jtfText, BorderLayout.CENTER);
  panel1.add(jbtShow, BorderLayout.EAST);
  add(panel1, BorderLayout.NORTH);
  
  JPanel panel2 = new JPanel(new BorderLayout(5, 5));
  panel2.add(new JLabel("  Enter a bit string: "), BorderLayout.WEST);
  panel2.add(jtfBitString, BorderLayout.CENTER);
  panel2.add(jbtDecode, BorderLayout.EAST);
  add(panel2, BorderLayout.SOUTH);

  jbtDecode.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {   
   @Override
   public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
    if(codes == null) {
     JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null, "No tree", "Decode Text to Bits", JOptionPane.WARNING_MESSAGE);
    } else if(jtfBitString.getText().length() == 0) {
     JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null, "No codes", "Decode Text to Bits", JOptionPane.WARNING_MESSAGE);
    } else {
     JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null, decode(), "Decode Text to Bits", JOptionPane.INFORMATION_MESSAGE);
    }    
   }
  });
  
  jbtShow.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {
   @Override
   public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
    String text = jtfText.getText();
    if (text.length() == 0) {
     tree = null;
     counts = null;
     codes = null;
     view.repaint();     
    } else {
     counts = getCharacterFrequency(text);
     tree = getHuffmanTree(counts);
     codes = getCode(tree.root);
     StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder(text + " is encoded to ");
     for (int i = 0; i < text.length(); i++) {
      result.append(codes[text.charAt(i)]);
     }
     view.repaint();
     JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null, result, "Encode Text to Bits", JOptionPane.INFORMATION_MESSAGE);
    }
   }
  });
  
 }

 private String decode() {
  String text = jtfBitString.getText();
  StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder(text + " is encoded to ");
  while(text.length()!= 0) {
   boolean isOk = false;
   for (int i = 0; i < codes.length; i++) {
    if((codes[i] != null)&&(text.indexOf(codes[i]) == 0)) {
     result.append((char)i);
     text = text.substring(codes[i].length(), text.length());
     isOk = true;
     break;
    }
   }
   if(!isOk) {
    return "Error while decoding";
   }
  }
  return result.toString();
 }
 
 // Inner class TreeView for displaying a tree on a panel
 class TreeView extends JPanel {
  private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
  private int radius = 20; // Tree node radius
  private int vGap = 50; // Gap between two levels in a tree

  @Override
  protected void paintComponent(Graphics g) {
   super.paintComponent(g);

   if (((tree != null)) && (tree.root != null)) {
    displayTree(g, tree.root, getWidth() / 2, 30, getWidth() / 4, 0);
   }
  }

  /** Display a subtree rooted at position (x, y) */
  private void displayTree(Graphics g, Tree.Node root, int x, int y, int hGap, int depth) {

   g.drawOval(x - radius, y - radius, 2 * radius, 2 * radius);
   g.drawString(root.element + "", x - 6, y + radius + 15);
   g.drawString(root.weight + "", x - 6, y + 4);

   if (root.left != null) {
    // Draw a line to the left node
    connectTwoCircles(g, x - hGap, y + vGap, x, y);
    printCode(g, root.left.code.charAt(depth), x - hGap, y + vGap, x, y);
    // Draw the left subtree recursively
    displayTree(g, root.left, x - hGap, y + vGap, hGap / 2, depth + 1);
   }

   if (root.right != null) {
    // Draw a line to the right node
    connectTwoCircles(g, x + hGap, y + vGap, x, y);
    printCode(g, root.right.code.charAt(depth), x + hGap, y + vGap, x, y);
    // Draw the right subtree recursively
    displayTree(g, root.right, x + hGap, y + vGap, hGap / 2, depth + 1);
   }
   
  }

  /** Connect two circles centered at (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) */
  private void connectTwoCircles(Graphics g, int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2) {
   double d = Math.sqrt(vGap * vGap + (x2 - x1) * (x2 - x1));
   int x11 = (int) (x1 - radius * (x1 - x2) / d);
   int y11 = (int) (y1 - radius * (y1 - y2) / d);
   int x21 = (int) (x2 + radius * (x1 - x2) / d);
   int y21 = (int) (y2 + radius * (y1 - y2) / d);
   g.drawLine(x11, y11, x21, y21);
  }
  
  /** Connect two circles centered at (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) */
  private void printCode(Graphics g, char code, int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2) {
   double d = Math.sqrt(vGap * vGap + (x2 - x1) * (x2 - x1));
   int x11 = (int) (x1 - radius * (x1 - x2) / d);
   int y11 = (int) (y1 - radius * (y1 - y2) / d);
   int x21 = (int) (x2 + radius * (x1 - x2) / d);
   int y21 = (int) (y2 + radius * (y1 - y2) / d);
   g.drawString("" + code, (x21 + x11) / 2, (y21 + y11) / 2 - 5);
  }
 }
 
 
 /**
  * Get Huffman codes for the characters This method is called once after a
  * Huffman tree is built
  */
 public static String[] getCode(Tree.Node root) {
  if (root == null)
   return null;
  String[] codes = new String[2 * 128];
  assignCode(root, codes);
  return codes;
 }

 /* Recursively get codes to the leaf node */
 private static void assignCode(Tree.Node root, String[] codes) {
  if (root.left != null) {
   root.left.code = root.code + "0";
   assignCode(root.left, codes);

   root.right.code = root.code + "1";
   assignCode(root.right, codes);
  } else {
   codes[(int) root.element] = root.code;
  }
 }

 /** Get a Huffman tree from the codes */
 public static Tree getHuffmanTree(int[] counts) {
  // Create a heap to hold trees
  Heap<Tree> heap = new Heap<Tree>(); // Defined in Listing 24.10
  for (int i = 0; i < counts.length; i++) {
   if (counts[i] > 0)
    heap.add(new Tree(counts[i], (char) i)); // A leaf node tree
  }

  while (heap.getSize() > 1) {
   Tree t1 = heap.remove(); // Remove the smallest weight tree
   Tree t2 = heap.remove(); // Remove the next smallest weight
   heap.add(new Tree(t1, t2)); // Combine two trees
  }

  return heap.remove(); // The final tree
 }

 /** Get the frequency of the characters */
 public static int[] getCharacterFrequency(String text) {
  int[] counts = new int[256]; // 256 ASCII characters

  for (int i = 0; i < text.length(); i++)
   counts[(int) text.charAt(i)]++; // Count the character in text

  return counts;
 }

 /** Define a Huffman coding tree */
 public static class Tree implements Comparable<Tree> {
  Node root; // The root of the tree

  /** Create a tree with two subtrees */
  public Tree(Tree t1, Tree t2) {
   root = new Node();
   root.left = t1.root;
   root.right = t2.root;
   root.weight = t1.root.weight + t2.root.weight;
  }

  /** Create a tree containing a leaf node */
  public Tree(int weight, char element) {
   root = new Node(weight, element);
  }

  @Override
  /** Compare trees based on their weights */
  public int compareTo(Tree t) {
   if (root.weight < t.root.weight) // Purposely reverse the order
    return 1;
   else if (root.weight == t.root.weight)
    return 0;
   else
    return -1;
  }

  public class Node {
   char element; // Stores the character for a leaf node
   int weight; // weight of the subtree rooted at this node
   Node left; // Reference to the left subtree
   Node right; // Reference to the right subtree
   String code = ""; // The code of this node from the root

   /** Create an empty node */
   public Node() {
   }

   /** Create a node with the specified weight and character */
   public Node(int weight, char element) {
    this.weight = weight;
    this.element = element;
   }
  }
 }

 static class Heap<E extends Comparable<E>> {
  private java.util.ArrayList<E> list = new java.util.ArrayList<E>();

  /** Create a default heap */
  public Heap() {
  }

  /** Create a heap from an array of objects */
  public Heap(E[] objects) {
   for (int i = 0; i < objects.length; i++)
    add(objects[i]);
  }

  /** Add a new object into the heap */
  public void add(E newObject) {
   list.add(newObject); // Append to the heap
   int currentIndex = list.size() - 1; // The index of the last node

   while (currentIndex > 0) {
    int parentIndex = (currentIndex - 1) / 2;
    // Swap if the current object is greater than its parent
    if (list.get(currentIndex).compareTo(list.get(parentIndex)) > 0) {
     E temp = list.get(currentIndex);
     list.set(currentIndex, list.get(parentIndex));
     list.set(parentIndex, temp);
    } else
     break; // the tree is a heap now

    currentIndex = parentIndex;
   }
  }

  /** Remove the root from the heap */
  public E remove() {
   if (list.size() == 0)
    return null;

   E removedObject = list.get(0);
   list.set(0, list.get(list.size() - 1));
   list.remove(list.size() - 1);

   int currentIndex = 0;
   while (currentIndex < list.size()) {
    int leftChildIndex = 2 * currentIndex + 1;
    int rightChildIndex = 2 * currentIndex + 2;

    // Find the maximum between two children
    if (leftChildIndex >= list.size())
     break; // The tree is a heap
    int maxIndex = leftChildIndex;
    if (rightChildIndex < list.size()) {
     if (list.get(maxIndex).compareTo(list.get(rightChildIndex)) < 0) {
      maxIndex = rightChildIndex;
     }
    }

    // Swap if the current node is less than the maximum
    if (list.get(currentIndex).compareTo(list.get(maxIndex)) < 0) {
     E temp = list.get(maxIndex);
     list.set(maxIndex, list.get(currentIndex));
     list.set(currentIndex, temp);
     currentIndex = maxIndex;
    } else
     break; // The tree is a heap
   }

   return removedObject;
  }

  /** Get the number of nodes in the tree */
  public int getSize() {
   return list.size();
  }
 }
}

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