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Tuesday, 7 February 2017

Chapter 25 Exercise 10, Introduction to Java Programming, Tenth Edition Y. Daniel LiangY.

25.10 (Preorder iterator) Add the following method in the BST class that returns an iterator for traversing the elements in a BST in preorder.
/** Returns an iterator for traversing the elements in preorder */
java.util.Iterator<E> preorderIterator()


import java.util.LinkedList;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Iterator;

public class Exercise10 {

 public static void main(String[] args) {
  BST<Integer> tree = new BST<>(new Integer[] {60, 55, 100, 45, 57, 67, 107, 101, 59});
  tree.preorder();
  System.out.println();
  Iterator itr = tree.iterator();
  while(itr.hasNext()) {
         Object element = itr.next();
         System.out.print(element + " ");
  }
  //System.out.println();
 }

 static class BST<E extends Comparable<E>> extends AbstractTree<E> {
  protected TreeNode<E> root;
  protected int size = 0;
     
  
  public boolean isFullBST() {
    return size == Math.round(Math.pow(2, height()) - 1);
  }
  
  /** Returns the height of this binary tree, i.e., the
  * number of the nodes in the longest path of the root to a leaf */
  public int height() {
   return height(root);
  }
  
  public int height(TreeNode<E> node) {
   if(node == null) {
    return 0;
   } else {
    return 1 + Math.max(height(node.left), height(node.right));
   }
  }

  /** Create a default binary tree */
  public BST() {
  }

  /** Create a binary tree from an array of objects */
  public BST(E[] objects) {
   for (int i = 0; i < objects.length; i++)
    insert(objects[i]);
  }

  @Override
  /** Returns true if the element is in the tree */
  public boolean search(E e) {
   TreeNode<E> current = root; // Start from the root

   while (current != null) {
    if (e.compareTo(current.element) < 0) {
     current = current.left;
    } else if (e.compareTo(current.element) > 0) {
     current = current.right;
    } else
     // element matches current.element
     return true; // Element is found
   }

   return false;
  }

  @Override
  /** Insert element o into the binary tree
   * Return true if the element is inserted successfully */
  public boolean insert(E e) {
   if (root == null)
    root = createNewNode(e); // Create a new root
   else {
    // Locate the parent node
    TreeNode<E> parent = null;
    TreeNode<E> current = root;
    while (current != null)
     if (e.compareTo(current.element) < 0) {
      parent = current;
      current = current.left;
     } else if (e.compareTo(current.element) > 0) {
      parent = current;
      current = current.right;
     } else
      return false; // Duplicate node not inserted

    // Create the new node and attach it to the parent node
    if (e.compareTo(parent.element) < 0)
     parent.left = createNewNode(e);
    else
     parent.right = createNewNode(e);
   }

   size++;
   return true; // Element inserted
  }

  protected TreeNode<E> createNewNode(E e) {
   return new TreeNode<E>(e);
  }

  @Override
  /** Inorder traversal from the root*/
  public void inorder() {
   inorder(root);
  }

  /** Inorder traversal from a subtree */
  protected void inorder(TreeNode<E> root) {
   if (root == null)
    return;
   inorder(root.left);
   System.out.print(root.element + " ");
   inorder(root.right);
  }

  @Override
  /** Postorder traversal from the root */
  public void postorder() {
   postorder(root);
  }

  /** Postorder traversal from a subtree */
  protected void postorder(TreeNode<E> root) {
   if (root == null)
    return;
   postorder(root.left);
   postorder(root.right);
   System.out.print(root.element + " ");
  }

  @Override
  /** Preorder traversal from the root */
  public void preorder() {
   preorder(root);
  }

  /** Preorder traversal from a subtree */
  protected void preorder(TreeNode<E> root) {
   if (root == null)
    return;
   System.out.print(root.element + " ");
   preorder(root.left);
   preorder(root.right);
  }

  /**
   * This inner class is static, because it does not access any instance
   * members defined in its outer class
   */
  public static class TreeNode<E extends Comparable<E>> {
   protected E element;
   protected TreeNode<E> left;
   protected TreeNode<E> right;

   public TreeNode(E e) {
    element = e;
   }
  }

  @Override
  /** Get the number of nodes in the tree */
  public int getSize() {
   return size;
  }

  /** Returns the root of the tree */
  public TreeNode<E> getRoot() {
   return root;
  }

  /** Returns a path from the root leading to the specified element */
  public java.util.ArrayList<TreeNode<E>> path(E e) {
   java.util.ArrayList<TreeNode<E>> list = new java.util.ArrayList<TreeNode<E>>();
   TreeNode<E> current = root; // Start from the root

   while (current != null) {
    list.add(current); // Add the node to the list
    if (e.compareTo(current.element) < 0) {
     current = current.left;
    } else if (e.compareTo(current.element) > 0) {
     current = current.right;
    } else
     break;
   }

   return list; // Return an array of nodes
  }

  @Override
  /** Delete an element from the binary tree.
   * Return true if the element is deleted successfully
   * Return false if the element is not in the tree */
  public boolean delete(E e) {
   // Locate the node to be deleted and also locate its parent node
   TreeNode<E> parent = null;
   TreeNode<E> current = root;
   while (current != null) {
    if (e.compareTo(current.element) < 0) {
     parent = current;
     current = current.left;
    } else if (e.compareTo(current.element) > 0) {
     parent = current;
     current = current.right;
    } else
     break; // Element is in the tree pointed at by current
   }

   if (current == null)
    return false; // Element is not in the tree

   // Case 1: current has no left children
   if (current.left == null) {
    // Connect the parent with the right child of the current node
    if (parent == null) {
     root = current.right;
    } else {
     if (e.compareTo(parent.element) < 0)
      parent.left = current.right;
     else
      parent.right = current.right;
    }
   } else {
    // Case 2: The current node has a left child
    // Locate the rightmost node in the left subtree of
    // the current node and also its parent
    TreeNode<E> parentOfRightMost = current;
    TreeNode<E> rightMost = current.left;

    while (rightMost.right != null) {
     parentOfRightMost = rightMost;
     rightMost = rightMost.right; // Keep going to the right
    }

    // Replace the element in current by the element in rightMost
    current.element = rightMost.element;

    // Eliminate rightmost node
    if (parentOfRightMost.right == rightMost)
     parentOfRightMost.right = rightMost.left;
    else
     // Special case: parentOfRightMost == current
     parentOfRightMost.left = rightMost.left;
   }

   size--;
   return true; // Element inserted
  }

  @Override
  /** Obtain an iterator. Use inorder. */
  public java.util.Iterator<E> iterator() {
   return new preorderIterator();
  }

  // Inner class preorderIterator
  private class preorderIterator implements java.util.Iterator<E> {
   // Store the elements in a list
   private java.util.ArrayList<E> list = new java.util.ArrayList<E>();
   private int current = 0; // Point to the current element in list

   public preorderIterator() {
    preorder(); // Traverse binary tree and store elements in list
   }

   /** preorder traversal from the root */
   private void preorder() {
    preorder(root);
   }

   /** Preorder traversal from a subtree */
  protected void preorder(TreeNode<E> root) {
   if (root == null)
    return;
   System.out.print(root.element + " ");
   preorder(root.left);
   preorder(root.right);
  }

   @Override
   /** More elements for traversing? */
   public boolean hasNext() {
    if (current < list.size())
     return true;

    return false;
   }

   @Override
   /** Get the current element and move to the next */
   public E next() {
    return list.get(current++);
   }

   @Override
   /** Remove the current element */
   public void remove() {
    delete(list.get(current)); // Delete the current element
    list.clear(); // Clear the list
    inorder(); // Rebuild the list
   }
  }

  /** Remove all elements from the tree */
  public void clear() {
   root = null;
   size = 0;
  }
 }

 static abstract class AbstractTree<E> implements Tree<E> {
  @Override
  /** Inorder traversal from the root*/
  public void inorder() {
  }

  @Override
  /** Postorder traversal from the root */
  public void postorder() {
  }

  @Override
  /** Preorder traversal from the root */
  public void preorder() {
  }

  @Override
  /** Return true if the tree is empty */
  public boolean isEmpty() {
   return getSize() == 0;
  }

  @Override
  /** Return an iterator for the tree */
  public java.util.Iterator<E> iterator() {
   return null;
  }
 }

 interface Tree<E> extends Iterable<E> {
  /** Return true if the element is in the tree */
  public boolean search(E e);

  /**
   * Insert element o into the binary tree Return true if the element is
   * inserted successfully
   */
  public boolean insert(E e);

  /**
   * Delete the specified element from the tree Return true if the element
   * is deleted successfully
   */
  public boolean delete(E e);

  /** Inorder traversal from the root */
  public void inorder();

  /** Postorder traversal from the root */
  public void postorder();

  /** Preorder traversal from the root */
  public void preorder();

  /** Get the number of nodes in the tree */
  public int getSize();

  /** Return true if the tree is empty */
  public boolean isEmpty();

  public java.util.Iterator<E> iterator();
 }
}

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