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Tuesday, 17 January 2017

Chapter 20 Exercise 23, Introduction to Java Programming, Tenth Edition Y. Daniel LiangY.

20.23  (Evaluate expression)
Modify Listing 20.9 EvaluateExpression.java to add operators ^
for exponent and % for modulus. For example, 3 ^ 2 is 9 and 3 % 2 is 1.
The ^ operator has the highest precedence and the % operator has the same
precedence as the * and / operators. Your program should prompt the user
to enter an expression.


import java.util.Stack;

public class Exercise_23 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Check number of arguments passed
        if (args.length != 1) {
            System.out.println(
                    "Usage: java EvaluateExpression \"expression\"");
            System.exit(1);
        }

        try {
            System.out.println(args[0] + " = " + evaluateExpression(args[0]));
        } catch (Exception ex) {
            System.out.println("Wrong expression: " + args[0]);
        }
    }

    /** Evaluate an expression */
    public static int evaluateExpression(String expression) {
        // Create operandStack to store operands
        Stack<Integer> operandStack = new Stack<>();

        // Create operatorStack to store operators
        Stack<Character> operatorStack = new Stack<>();

        // Insert blanks around (, ), +, -, /, and *
        expression = insertBlanks(expression);

        // Extract operands and operators
        String[] tokens = expression.split(" ");

        // Phase 1: Scan tokens
        for (String token: tokens) {
            if (token.length() == 0) // Blank space
                continue; // Back to the while loop to extract the next token
            else if (token.charAt(0) == '+' || token.charAt(0) == '-') {
                // Process all +, -, *, / in the top of the operator stack
                while (!operatorStack.isEmpty() &&
                        (operatorStack.peek() == '+' ||
                                operatorStack.peek() == '-' ||
                                operatorStack.peek() == '*' ||
                                operatorStack.peek() == '/')) {
                    processAnOperator(operandStack, operatorStack);
                }

                // Push the + or - operator into the operator stack
                operatorStack.push(token.charAt(0));
            }
            else if (token.charAt(0) == '*' || token.charAt(0) == '/' || token.charAt(0) == '%') {
                // Process all *, / in the top of the operator stack
                while (!operatorStack.isEmpty() &&
                        (operatorStack.peek() == '*' ||
                                operatorStack.peek() == '/' ||
                                operatorStack.peek() == '%')) {
                    processAnOperator(operandStack, operatorStack);
                }

                // Push the * or / operator into the operator stack
                operatorStack.push(token.charAt(0));
            } else if (token.charAt(0) == '^') {
                // Process all *, / in the top of the operator stack
                while (!operatorStack.isEmpty() &&
                        operatorStack.peek() == '^') {
                    processAnOperator(operandStack, operatorStack);
                }
                // Push the ^ operator into the operator stack
                operatorStack.push(token.charAt(0));
            } else if (token.trim().charAt(0) == '(') {
                operatorStack.push('('); // Push '(' to stack
            } else if (token.trim().charAt(0) == ')') {
                // Process all the operators in the stack until seeing '('
                while (operatorStack.peek() != '(') {
                    processAnOperator(operandStack, operatorStack);
                }

                operatorStack.pop(); // Pop the '(' symbol from the stack
            } else { // An operand scanned
                // Push an operand to the stack
                operandStack.push(new Integer(token));
            }
        }

        // Phase 2: process all the remaining operators in the stack
        while (!operatorStack.isEmpty()) {
            processAnOperator(operandStack, operatorStack);
        }

        // Return the result
        return operandStack.pop();
    }

    /** Process one operator: Take an operator from operatorStack and
     *  apply it on the operands in the operandStack */
    public static void processAnOperator(
            Stack<Integer> operandStack, Stack<Character> operatorStack) {
        char op = operatorStack.pop();
        int op1 = operandStack.pop();
        int op2 = operandStack.pop();
        if (op == '+')
            operandStack.push(op2 + op1);
        else if (op == '-')
            operandStack.push(op2 - op1);
        else if (op == '*')
            operandStack.push(op2 * op1);
        else if (op == '/')
            operandStack.push(op2 / op1);
        else if (op == '^')
            operandStack.push((int)Math.pow(op2, op1));
        else if (op == '%')
            operandStack.push(op2 % op1);
    }

    public static String insertBlanks(String s) {
        String result = "";

        for (int i = 0; i < s.length(); i++) {
            if (s.charAt(i) == '(' || s.charAt(i) == ')' ||
                    s.charAt(i) == '+' || s.charAt(i) == '-' ||
                    s.charAt(i) == '*' || s.charAt(i) == '/')
                result += " " + s.charAt(i) + " ";
            else
                result += s.charAt(i);
        }

        return result;
    }
}

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